of the New World monkeys, head and body lengths range from
559-915 mm, tail length 585-915mm and adult weights range
from 4- 10 kg. Color variations from yellowish brown, deep
reddish brown and black occur within species and individuals
and can change as the monkey ages. Males are usually larger
than females. Howlers have short, stout legs. They have extremely
powerful prehensile tails which are hairless on the underside
of the terminal third. The face is naked and the large lower
jaw and hyoid bone enable the monkey to emit loud, booming
diet consists of fruits, leaves and other vegetable matter.
palliata prefers secondary forest. Adult males are dominant.
Howlers live in troops of 2-45, but generally average 10-20
animals. Vocalizations are used to declare territory, which
is wherever the group happens to be at the time.
Adult females have an estrous cycle lasting 13-24 days and
gestation ranges from 180-194 days. One infant is born and
travels with its mother by clinging to her fur. As it gets
older, it moves to a permanent riding position on her back.
This lasts for about one year. The young is weaned at about
10 months and sexual maturity is achieved at 3-4 years for
females and 5 years for males. Males, however, must attain
specific social status before they can mate. Average lifespan
is 16 years.
are found from W Ecuador to Veracruz and Oaxaca (Mexico).